Ethiopia is revered as the birthplace of coffee, where the first coffee cherries grew wild and the coffee plant originated. Ethiopia is the geographic home of Arabica coffee, the original coffee species that accounts for 60% of global coffee production.
Coffee is intricately woven into Ethiopia's history, culture, and economy. Coffee cultivation in Ethiopia dates back over 1,000 years. Legend has it that 9th century Ethiopian goat herders first discovered the coffee plant after noticing increased energy in their goats after eating the red cherries. Monks at Ethiopian monasteries used coffee to enhance concentration during long prayer sessions. Coffee's popularity spread through the region.
Ethiopia is the 7th largest coffee producer in the world. Coffee accounts for over 28% of the country's exports. Over 15 million Ethiopians are involved in coffee production and it is a central pillar of the economy.
Unique Terroir Produces Distinctive Beans
Ethiopian coffee is known for its complex, bright, and fruity flavors. This is due to the unique terroir. Terroir refers to how the climate, soil, and land impact the coffee's qualities.
Ethiopia contains 6 major coffee producing regions, each with distinctive terroir that lends unique flavors to the beans. Key factors include:
- Altitude: Ethiopian coffee is grown at very high altitudes, from 1,500 up to 2,200 meters above sea level. The higher altitude contributes to dense beans and complex flavors.
- Soil: Volcanic soils provide ideal nutrition for coffee trees. Volcanic soils allow proper drainage and retention of nutrients.
- Rainfall: Optimal rainfall and consistent temperatures from June through September contribute to ripe cherries.
- Varietals: There are over 6,500 identified strains of Arabica coffee varieties in Ethiopia. Indigenous varietals yield unique flavor profiles.
Processing Methods Reflect Rich Tradition
Ethiopia utilizes time-honored natural processing methods handed down over generations. This processing greatly impacts the beans' final flavor.
- Sun Dried/Natural Processing: Cherries are dried in the sun with the fruit still attached, sometimes for up to 4 weeks. This yields a sweeter, fruitier flavor.
- Washed Processing: A wet method where the fruit covering the bean is removed before drying. This brings out the bean's inherent flavors.
The rich history, terroir, coffee varietals, and processing methods make Ethiopian coffees intensely aromatic, complex, and wild. Ethiopian coffee offers a truly distinctive cup profile.